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3 edition of Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers found in the catalog.

Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

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Published by Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Dept., City College of New York, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, National Technical Information Service, distributor in New York, N.Y, [Washington, DC, Springfield, Va .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Chromium.,
  • Tunable lasers.

  • Edition Notes

    Other titlesTetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser active ion for tunable solid-state lasers.
    StatementA. Seas, V. Petrie vic £, and R.R. Alfano.
    Series[NASA contractor report] -- NASA CR-194527.
    ContributionsPetrie vic £, V., Alfano, R. R., United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
    The Physical Object
    FormatMicroform
    Pagination1 v.
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL14698468M

      This chromium (tetravalent or hexavalent form) content produce thus might be a good source of chromium migration into the food chain. A wide variety of bacteria have been reported for reducing/transforming Cr(VI) to Cr(III), under aerobic and anaerobic condition, e.g. Intrasporangium Sp. Q, Bacillus sp. ES29, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter Cited by: The Charles Hard Townes Award of The Optical Society is a prize for Quantum Electronics — that is to say, the physics of lasers. Awarded annually since , it is named after the Nobel Prize-winning laser pioneer Charles H. Townes.. Former winners include Nobel Prize laureates John L. Hall, Claude Cohen-Tannoudji, Serge Haroche, Arthur Ashkin, and Gérard Mourou. trivalent definition: 1. Biol. triple: said of a chromosome formed by three homologous chromosomes that lie close together or appear to join completely during meiosis 2. Chem. 3. having three valences 4. having a valence of threeOrigin of trivalent tri-.


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Tetravalent chromium (Crþ́ð́) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers Download PDF EPUB FB2

Proc Amer Assoc Cancer Res, Vol Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) is a common occupational hazard, an environmental pollutant, and a recognized human carcinogen. When exposed to Cr[VI], cells rapidly internalize this compound where it is metabolized to Cr[III]. Byproducts of Cr[VI] metabolism include unstable intermediates Cr[V] and Cr[IV].Author: Tiina Anttinen-Klemetti, Pertti Koivisto, Jarkko Tornaeus, Antti Hesso, Rhoderick Elder, Kimmo Pelto.

Tetravalent chromium (Cr⁴) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers: semi-annual progress report, period, Author: Robert R Alfano ; United States.

"Tetravalent Chromium (Cr 4+) as Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers": 1. Numerical modeling of the four mirror astigmatically compensated, Z-fold cavity was performed. The simulation revealed several design parameters to be used for the construction of a femtosecond forsterite laser.

Tetravalent chromium book Tetravalent Chromium (Cr 4+) as Laser-Active Ion for Tunable Solid-State Lasers / /o# A. Seas, V. Petri_:evi6, and R. Alfano SEMI-ANNUAL PROGRESS REPORT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Prof. Robert R. Alfano Period Covered: 10/31/91 - 3/31/92 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers Physics Department, Room J City College of New York.

We report on the anion substitution and pressure effects on the layered compound 1T-CrSe 2 with unusual-valent chromium. Owing to the competition between the orbital degrees of freedom and the valence instability of Cr 4+, the systems of Cr(Se 1− x S x) 2 and Cr(Se 1− y Te y) 2 exhibit several types of phase transition.

As well as the parent compound CrSe 2, Te-substituted samples and Author: Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Ueda, Chishiro Michioka, Kazuyoshi Yoshimura. The book closes with discussions on halogen chemistry of actinides and halogeno metal carbonyls and related compounds.

Covered areas include trivalent, tetravalent, pentavalent, and hexavalent actinides, and structures and reactions of halogeno metal Edition: 1. Reaction of CrCl3(THF)3 with 3 equiv of R−M [R = Me3CCH2 (a), Me3SiCH2 (b)] afforded either the previously reported tetravalent homoleptic R4Cr (1a, b) [M = MgCl] or the unprecedented divalent and tetranuclear homoleptic [R2Cr]4 (2b) [M = Li].

Both types of compounds display a remarkable chemical inertness toward proton transfer agents but readily react with by: The Curie constant per gramatom chromium varies from forx = 0 to 186 for x = 1 in the mixed crystal series CuCr Rh −x Sn x Se is interpreted as a transition from tetravalent to trivalent chromium.

The ferromagnetic ordering occurring for x = 0 is Cited by: The LactMed® database contains information on drugs and other chemicals to which breastfeeding mothers may be exposed. It includes information on the levels of such substances in breast milk and infant blood, and the possible adverse effects in the nursing infant.

Suggested therapeutic alternatives to those drugs are provided, where appropriate. All data are derived from the scientific.

The simultaneous recovery of trivalent and tetravalent chromium ions through charged ion-exchange membranes by using three Tetravalent chromium book cells was tested at different current densities.

The effect of mono- and divalent valence ions corresponding to trivalent and hexavalent chromium ions in the feed phase was by: Tetravalent chromium (Cr⁴) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers: semi-annual progress report, period, 10/31//31/93 Author: A Seas ; ́ V Petričevic ; Robert R Alfano ; United States.

COVID Resources. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this ’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle coronavirus.

Reaction of CrCl 3 (THF) 3 with 3 equiv of R−M [R = Me 3 CCH 2 (a), Me 3 SiCH 2 (b)] afforded either the previously reported tetravalent homoleptic R 4 Cr (1a, b) [M = MgCl] or the unprecedented divalent and tetranuclear homoleptic [R 2 Cr] 4 (2b) [M = Li].Both types of compounds display a remarkable chemical inertness toward proton transfer agents but readily react with Tetravalent chromium book Chromium, Hexavalent DOC USEPA1 1,5-Diphenylcarbohydrazide Method 2 Method to mg/L Cr 6+ (spectrophotometers) to mg/L Cr6+ (colorimeters) Powder Pillows Scope and application: For water and wastewater; USEPA accepted for reporting for wastewater analysis.3 1 Accepted USEPA and Standard Method Cr B.

2 Adapted from Standard Methods. Cr Chromium Cr(III) Trivalent chromium Cr(IV) Tetravalent chromium Cr(V) Pentavalent chromium Cr(VI) Hexavalent chromium Cu Copper F Fluorine H 2 SO 4 Sulfuric acid HNO 3 Nitric acid NaF Sodium fluoride O Oxygen Zn Zinc Zr ZirconiumFile Size: 5MB.

trivalent chromium. It is not intended to be a comprehensive treatise on the chemical or toxicological nature of trivalent chromium (III).

In Section 6, EPA has characterized its overall confidence in the quantitative and qualitative aspects of hazard and dose response. Matters File Size: KB. Handbook of Sustainable Polymers book. Structure and Chemistry. Edited By Vijay Kumar Thakur, Manju Kumari Thakur.

Edition 1st Edition. First Published eBook Published 27 April and tetravalent chromium species, gh the synthesis of aldehydes, ketones, and acids as carbonyl groups by oxidation of organic Cited by: 1.

The chemical and physical properties of CrO 2 and tetravalent chromium oxide derivatives. Critical Reviews in Solid State and Materials Sciences7 (1), DOI: /Cited by:   Chromium is an essential trace mineral that plays an important role in helping insulin regulate blood glucose. May help maintain healthy blood sugar levels already within a normal range.

Chromium is a component of a number of enzymes that release energy from cells and is required for proper receptor functioning necessary for nutrient metabolism /5(4). Hexavalent chromium (chromium(VI), Cr(VI), chromium 6) is the chromium in any chemical compound that contains the element in the +6 oxidation state (thus hexavalent).Virtually all chromium ore is processed via hexavalent chromium, specifically the salt sodium imatelytonnes (, lb) of hexavalent chromium were produced in The concept of valence was developed in the second half of the 19th century and helped successfully explain the molecular structure of inorganic and organic compounds.

The quest for the underlying causes of valence led to the modern theories of chemical bonding, including the cubical atom (), Lewis structures (), valence bond theory (), molecular orbitals (), valence shell. On the nature of synthetic blue diopside crystals: the stabilization of tetravalent chromium Download the Scanned PDF: Henry D.

Schreiber Mechanisms of transformation and twinning in gillespite at high pressure Download the Scanned PDF: Robert M. Hazen Books Help Wanteds Advertise on this site FORUM current topics. 60, Q&A topics -- Education, Aloha, & Fun topic Troubles with trivalent chromium precipitation Hello all Usually I work with hexavalent chrome wastewater.

The wastewater is provided by a de-tanning process and the final slurry is a mix among chrome and little bit of.

Hexavalent chromium compounds are toxic and carcinogenic. In contrast, toxicity of Tetravalent Chromium is relatively low and in its trace amounts, it is not a problem for the environment. Electrocoagulation is a process consisting of creating metallic hydroxide flocks within the wastewater by electrode dissolution of soluble by: Chromium concentration and absorption coef- ficient We grew chromium doped forsterite crystals with different melt chromium concentrations for the purpose of increasing the tetravalent absorp- tion.

The maximum chromium concentration in the melt for growth of forsterite is approximately 3 wt% (Cr) according to the phase diagram [7].Cited by: 1.

Introduction. Ceramics of yttrium aluminium garnet (Y 3 Al 5 O 12) doped with tetravalent chromium (Cr 4+:YAG) are solid-state laser materials used as saturable absorbers for the mm laser emission,, moreover, they are employed as active elements of tunable mid-IR lasers in the spectral range of – µm.

The YAG crystal belongs to the cubic space group Ia3d, with Cited by: 8. Chromium Toxicity and its Health Hazards. Chromium is a toxic heavy metal which is found in environment in different oxidation states ranging from -2 to +6. Mechanisms of chromium toxicity.

Tetravalent chromium may be the most potent species since it causes DNA breaks and somatic recombination, but not apoptosis. Upon further failure of apoptosis and senescence/DNA-repair, damaged cells may become immortal with loss-of-heterozygosity and genetic by: Valence refers to the oxidation state of an atom present in a compound.

For example, * in chromium(III) chloride [math]CrCl_{3}[/math], chromium has an oxidation state of +3 (trivalent) due to the fact that chlorine has an ionic charge of -1, an.

Get this from a library. Chromium: its physicochemical behavior and petrologic significance: papers from a Carnegie Institution of Washington conference, Geophysical Laboratory.

[T N Irvine; Carnegie Institution of Washington. Geophysical Laboratory.;] -- Chromium: Its Physicochemical Behavior and Petrologic Significance. Chrome plating (less commonly chromium plating), often referred to simply as chrome, is a technique of electroplating a thin layer of chromium onto a metal object.

The chromed layer can be decorative, provide corrosion resistance, ease cleaning procedures, or increase surface hardness. Sometimes, a less expensive imitator of chrome may be used for aesthetic purposes.

Hexavalent to Trivalent (and Back Again) As the demand for non-chromium protection of zinc and zinc alloy plating has increased, trivalent chromium passivation systems have appeared. Early on, an interesting phenomenon was observed: Hexavalent chrome was found on coatings that were not supposed to contain hexavalent chrome.

Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number It is the first element in group is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle transition metal. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, to which it adds anti-corrosive um is also highly valued as a metal that is able to be highly polished while resisting : group 6.

We have go for vegetable tannins instead of using hexavalent chromium can use tetravalent chromium. Anykind of industrial pollution should be controlled by its process itself.

Go for eco friendly. The first chromium metal was obtained by electrodeposition in France. This first result was realized by electrolysis of an aqueous trivalent chromium solution, published and patented in by Junot de Bussy. 1,2 InBunsen 3 studied the influence of the cathodic current density on chromium deposition using a hot chromium chloride solution, with separation (porous pot) of anodic.

B, chromium (1) for decorative chromium and hexavalent and tetravalent chromium ( um), chromium/T (10) for thick chrome 20 microns or more. C, copper (2) for copper plating on iron, aluminium, plastics, ceramics, etc, copper/Zn (9) is used for copper plating on zinc and zinc alloys.

Alloy pl ating measurement. Chromium has two main valence states: hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) and trivalent chromium (Cr[III]). Cr(VI), a well-established human carcinogen, can enter cells by way of a sulfate/phosphate anion-transport system, and then be reduced to lower-valence intermediates consisting of pentavalent chromium (Cr[V]), tetravalent chromium (Cr[IV]) or Cr(III) via cellular by:   Exposures that occur in the application of pesticides; Exposures to Portland cement; Where the employer has objective data demonstrating that a material containing Hexavalent Chromium or a specific process, operation or activity involving Hexavalent Chromium cannot release dusts, fumes or mists of Hexavalent Chromium in concentrations at or above µg/m3 of air as an eight-hour.

Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a human carcinogen after inhalation exposure. Humans also ingest Cr(VI) from contaminated drinking water and soil; however, limited data exist on the oral toxicity and carcinogenicity of Cr(VI).We characterized the chronic Cited by: Hexavalent chromium shows up in predominantly three forms: 1) Trivalent Chromium, which occurs naturally as chrome ore and is also an essential nutrient for proper metabolism; 2) Metallic or Elemental Chromium, typically found in aerospace alloys; and 3) Hexavalent Chromium, typically from industrial processes like welding and thermal spray.

chromium ions. Yet in the crystal, it appears that only a small fraction of the chromium atoms, %, actually existed in the tetravalent state after prolonged oxidation, even when the.What is an allusion in chapter 3 of the outsiders.

Which is more reactive phosphorus or chlorine. Which was not a result of the baby boom that followed world war ii answers APEX. Hexavalent chromium is a form of the metallic element chromium.

Chromium is a naturally occurring element found in rocks, animals, plants, soil, and volcanic dust and gases. It comes in several different forms, including trivalent chromium and hexavalent chromium.